1648: Margaret Jones is hanged in Boston for witchcraft in the first such execution for the Massachusetts colony.
1775: The United States Army is established by the Continental Congress.
1807: Napoleon's Grande Armee defeats the Russian Army at the Battle of Friedland in Poland, ending the War of the Fourth Coalition.
1900: Hawaii becomes a United States territory.
1937: The U. S. House of Representatives passes the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act.
1940: Paris falls to German forces.
1952: The keel is laid for the first nuclear submarine, the U.S.S. Nautilus.
1954: Congress adds “Under God” to the Pledge of Allegiance.
1954: First nationwide Civil Defense drill is held to prepare the nation for a nuclear attack by the Soviet Union. (From this we get “duck and cover” or more accurately “bend over, put your head between your knees, and kiss your a*s goodbye.”)
1958: Shot Hardtack-Aspen is successfully detonated at Bikini Atoll, Pacific Proving Grounds, Marshall Islands with a yield of 319 kilotons.
1963: All 80 people onboard a Swissair Sud Aviation SE210 Caravelle are killed when it crashes near Durrenasch, Switzerland. The cause of the crash is a fire which broke out in the aircraft’s landing gear. Prior to takeoff, the aircraft had taxied down the runway to use its engines to clear fog. Excessive braking during this maneuver overheated the brakes and lead to the fire.
1972: A Japan Airlines McDonnell Douglas DC-8-53 crashes on approach to New Delhi, India. 82 of the 87 people onboard are killed along with 4 more on the ground.
1982: Argentine forces in the Falklands surrender to the British.
1985: Trans World Airlines Flight 847 is hijacked by Hezbollah terrorists shortly after takeoff from Athens, Greece.