Author Topic: Ocasio-Cortez wants to make it easier to study magic mushrooms, other psychedelic drugs  (Read 291 times)

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Offline mountaineer

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This may explain a few things.
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Ocasio-Cortez wants to make it easier to study magic mushrooms, other psychedelic drugs
By Andrew O'Reilly | Fox News
June 9, 2019

Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, D-N.Y., filed legislation on Friday to make it easier for researchers to study the therapeutic and medical benefits of certain psychedelic drugs such as magic mushrooms amid a growing national shift in attitudes toward the substances.

In an amendment to a large-scale appropriations bill, Ocasio-Cortez wants to end the rider that prohibits federal money being spent on "any activity that promotes the legalization of any drug or other substance in Schedule I" of the Controlled Substances Act.

"Academics and scientists report that provisions like this create [stigma] and insurmountable logistical hurdles to researching Schedule I drugs," her summary states.  ...

An additional amendment to the appropriations bill, filed by Rep. Lou Correa, D-Calif., would prevent the Department of Education from denying federal funding to any university or college that permits the use or possession of medical marijuana in states where it has been legalized.  ...
More at FOX News
"Because men have lost the objective basis of certainty of knowledge of the thing in which they are working, more and more I fear we are going to find them manipulating science according to their own sociological or political desires rather than standing upon concrete objectivity." Francis A. Schaeffer

Offline Dexter

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I'm in agreement with her on this. Psychedelics are good at forcing a person to see themselves objectively, without ego, which can help overcome a lot of hurtles in therapy. It's possible that with the help of psychedelics we can find remedies for mental health conditions previously believed to be incurable.
"I know one thing, that I know nothing."
-Socrates

Offline The_Reader_David

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An example of the phenomenon to which the metaphor about stopped clocks being right twice a day applies.
And when they behead your own people in the wars which are to come, then you will know what this was all about.

Offline mountaineer

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Actually, I wish someone would do some actual research on marijuana. As it is, it - along with hemp products like CBD oil - gets credit for curing a plethora of conditions. But I have yet to see any scientific evidence for any of the claims.
"Because men have lost the objective basis of certainty of knowledge of the thing in which they are working, more and more I fear we are going to find them manipulating science according to their own sociological or political desires rather than standing upon concrete objectivity." Francis A. Schaeffer

Offline Elderberry

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Actually, I wish someone would do some actual research on marijuana. As it is, it - along with hemp products like CBD oil - gets credit for curing a plethora of conditions. But I have yet to see any scientific evidence for any of the claims.

Have you looked?

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaoncology/fullarticle/2504173?jamanetworkreader=true

Quote
Review
May 2016
Medical Marijuana Use in OncologyA Review
Gianna Wilkie, BS1; Bachir Sakr, MD2; Tina Rizack, MD, MPH2
Author Affiliations Article Information
JAMA Oncol. 2016;2(5):670-675. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.0155
Abstract

Importance  Medicinal marijuana use is currently legal in 23 states and the District of Columbia. As more states approve marijuana use for medical indications, physicians will be asked by their patients for more information regarding the risks and benefits of use. This article reviews the history, adverse effects, and proposed mechanisms of action of marijuana and summarizes the available literature regarding symptom relief and therapeutic value in patients with cancer.

Observations  Marijuana in oncology may have potential for use as an antiemetic, for refractory cancer pain, and as an antitumor agent. However, much of the data are based on animal data, small trials, or are outdated.

Conclusions and Relevance  More research is needed in all areas related to the therapeutic use of marijuana in oncology.
Introduction

Medical marijuana use is controversial in American society. While states move to legalize marijuana for medical and/or recreational use, research is needed to elucidate the adverse effects and potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis therapy. This literature review focuses on the history of marijuana use, potential mechanisms of action, the therapeutic use of marijuana in oncology, and its adverse effects.
History and Legal Status

Cannabis has a history of both medicinal and recreational use dating back centuries. Tradition holds that Chinese Emperor Shen Nung touted the benefits of cannabis in the 28th century bc.1 Cannabis was believed to have healing powers for ailments including rheumatism, gout, malaria, and “absent-mindedness.”2 In 1611, the Jamestown settlers brought marijuana (commonly known as hemp) to North America, and throughout the colonial period hemp fiber was an important export.2 Cannabis was first introduced to Western medicine by surgeon W.B. O’Shaughnessy in the 1840s. While working for the British East India company, he reportedly found it to have good analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and anticonvulsant properties. During this same time, a French psychiatrist, Jacques-Joseph Moreau, conducted studies that found that marijuana use suppressed headaches, increased appetite, and aided sleep. Marijuana was introduced into the US Pharmacopeia in 1850 and was prescribed for conditions such as labor pain, nausea, and rheumatism.2 The passage of the Harrison Act of 1914 defined the use of marijuana as a crime, which led individual states such as California and Texas to pass laws prohibiting marijuana use for nonmedical purposes.3 The US Congress then passed the Marijuana Tax Act, criminalizing the drug in 1937.3(pp971-1203) It was removed from the US Pharmacopeia in 1941 because it was no longer recognized to have medicinal use.2 The Boggs Act and Narcotics Control Act of 1951 increased marijuana possession and distribution penalties and led to the enforcement of mandatory prison sentences.3(pp971-1203) In 1970, marijuana became a Schedule I drug,4 a classification given by the US Drug Enforcement Administration to drugs with no currently accepted medical use with a high potential for abuse.5 In 1986, the Anti–Drug Abuse Act was passed, reinstating mandatory minimum penalties and increasing federal penalties for both possession and distribution of marijuana.6(pp189-190) It was not until 1996 that California became the first state to relegalize marijuana for use by people with AIDS, cancer, and other serious illnesses.6(p321) In 2010, California rejected proposition 19, which would have legalized marijuana use for recreational purposes.7(pp159-215) In November of 2012, the passage of Colorado’s Amendment 64 and Washington’s Initiative 502 made them the first US states to pass recreational use laws.8 Currently, 23 states and the District of Columbia have laws legalizing marijuana use in some form, with 4 states and the District of Columbia legalizing marijuana for recreational use (Table).8----


Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

Cannabis is known for its antiemetic properties, which makes it an appealing treatment for CINV. It has been proposed that THC may treat nausea via emetic reflex pathways by acting at receptors located in the nucleus tractus solitarii at the level of the area postrema.25 It has also been shown that THC reverses the effects of 5-HT3 receptor agonists, which normally induce vomiting.25

Cannabis has anecdotally been effective in suppressing anticipatory nausea. Parker et al26 completed experiments in which house musk shrews (Suncus murinus) were repeatedly exposed to contextual cues, which were then paired with the emetic effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) injections. They then confirmed that the shrews had developed a conditioned retching response to the cue even in the absence of LiCl. They then found that pretreatment of the shrews with principal cannabinoids 1 and 2 completely suppressed the retching reaction, while pretreatment with ondansetron did not suppress this reaction. They concluded that marijuana may suppress the expression of anticipatory nausea better than 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

There have been numerous studies comparing the antiemetic properties of cannabis and its derivatives to those of other medications used in CINV. Dronabinol, a synthetic THC, and nabilone, a synthetic analog of THC, both oral medications, are well-studied antiemetics, whereas data on smoked cannabis are more limited. With the availability of effective options such as corticosteroids, serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, and neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists for the prevention of CINV, cannabinoids are only used for patients intolerant of or refractory to first-line antiemetics.27 There are also no current data comparing smoked cannabis, THC, or its derivatives to current first-line CINV treatment regimens. Marijuana is, therefore, not recommended for the management of CINV, and it is not part of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for antiemesis.28

There are 2 systematic reviews available for the comparison of THC-derived drugs to older antiemetics. Tramèr et al29 completed a systematic review of 30 randomized comparisons of cannabinoids with placebo or other antiemetics. Three different cannabinoids (oral nabilone, oral dronabinol, and intramuscular levonantradol hydrochloride) were tested as first-line antiemetic agents in 1366 patients to evaluate the complete absence of nausea and vomiting in the first 24 hours of chemotherapy. When comparing all trials, they found that cannabinoids were significantly more effective antiemetics than prochlorperazine, metoclopramide hydrochloride, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, domperidone, or alizapride in patients receiving medium emetogenic regimens (consisting of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, or fluorouracil) but not highly emetogenic regimens (consisting of high-dose methotrexate, cisplatin, or doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide). Toxic adverse effects were observed. Beneficial nontherapeutic effects were a “high” sensation, sedation, drowsiness, and euphoria, and less desirable adverse effects included dizziness, dysphoria, depression, hallucinations, paranoia, and hypotension. In 18 studies crossover was allowed and 38% to 90% of patients reported preferring cannabinoid therapy for future chemotherapy cycles. Limitations of this review include the potential inconsistent administration times of medications in relation to chemotherapy administration, the overall small sample size of each of the trials compared (range, 8-139 patients), and the heterogeneity of study participants included. Some included patients had refractory CINV or previously used cannabis prior to treatment, which may have influenced their drug response.----


Cancer-Associated Pain

Cannabinoids have been studied for their analgesic potential in cancer-associated pain, specifically neuropathic pain.36 Cannabinoid 1 receptors, in the central nervous system, are found in high concentrations in areas of the brain that modulate nociceptive processing, with a similar distribution to opioid receptors.37 Cannabinoids may also act on mast cell receptors, inhibiting the release of inflammatory substances and enhancing the release of analgesic opioids to combat inflammation.38,39 Cannabinoids may be effective in treating neuropathic pain by inhibiting the acute pain response in C-fibers and the windup phenomenon that contributes to the development of hyperalgesia.36 Cannabinoids are also believed to have a synergistic analgesic effect with opioids via unknown mechanisms.40 Cannabinoids may function to suppress spinal and thalamic nociceptive neurons.41------


Cannabis as an Antitumor Agent

There is evidence that suggests that cannabis may be used as a potential chemotherapeutic treatment. Endocannabinoid signaling is increased in some human tissue malignant neoplasms when compared with noncancerous tissue, especially in highly invasive cancers, suggesting that endocannabinoids may play a role in tumor growth.46 In vivo and in vitro research propose that cannabinoids can inhibit tumor growth via various mechanisms including increasing cellular apoptosis and suppressing cell proliferation.47,48 Conflictingly, McKallip et al49 showed that THC may increase tumor growth due to reduced immune function. Cannabinoid receptors are widespread throughout the body and regulate a variety of physiological functions, including neuronal development and energy metabolism. Activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors leads to a cascade of cellular activity affecting ion channels, production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase families involved with cellular signaling, proliferation, invasion, and adhesion.50 Cannabinoids may work to induce cancer cell death through cellular signaling pathways leading to apoptosis.40------


Cannabis as an Antitumor Agent

There is evidence that suggests that cannabis may be used as a potential chemotherapeutic treatment. Endocannabinoid signaling is increased in some human tissue malignant neoplasms when compared with noncancerous tissue, especially in highly invasive cancers, suggesting that endocannabinoids may play a role in tumor growth.46 In vivo and in vitro research propose that cannabinoids can inhibit tumor growth via various mechanisms including increasing cellular apoptosis and suppressing cell proliferation.47,48 Conflictingly, McKallip et al49 showed that THC may increase tumor growth due to reduced immune function. Cannabinoid receptors are widespread throughout the body and regulate a variety of physiological functions, including neuronal development and energy metabolism. Activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors leads to a cascade of cellular activity affecting ion channels, production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase families involved with cellular signaling, proliferation, invasion, and adhesion.50 Cannabinoids may work to induce cancer cell death through cellular signaling pathways leading to apoptosis.40----


References
1.
Zuardi  AW.  History of cannabis as a medicine: a review.  Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2006;28(2):153-157.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Narconon International. History of marijuana use. http://www.narconon.org/drug-information/marijuana-history.html. Accessed July 2, 2015.
3.
Bonnie  RJ, Whitebread  CH.  The forbidden fruit and the tree of knowledge: an inquiry into the legal history of American marijuana prohibition.  Virginia Law Rev. 1970:971-1203.Google Scholar
4.
Zeese  KB.  History of medical marijuana policy in US.  Int J Drug Policy. 1999;10(4):319-328.Google ScholarCrossref
5.
Nelson  B.  Medical marijuana: hints of headway? despite a conflicted regulatory landscape, support for medical marijuana is growing amid increasing evidence of potential benefits.  Cancer Cytopathol. 2015;123(2):67-68.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
6.
Lee  M.  Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana—Medical, Recreational, Scientific. New York, NY: Scribner; 2012.
7.
Martin  A, Rashidian  N.  A New Leaf: The End of Cannabis Prohibition. New York, NY: New Press; 2014.
8.
Stebbins  S, Frohlich  TC, Sauter  MB. The next 11 states to legalize marijuana. USA Today. August 19, 2015. http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2015/08/18/24-7-wall-st-marijuana/31834875/. Accessed September 3, 2015.
9.
Johannigman  S, Eschiti  V.  Medical use of marijuana in palliative care.  Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2013;17(4):360-362.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
10.
Miron  J, Waldock  K.  The Budgetary Impact of Ending Drug Prohibition. Washington, DC: Cato Institute; 2010.
11.
Imam  J. Pot money changing hearts in Washington. CNN. July 11, 2015. http://www.cnn.com/2015/07/10/us/washington-marijuana-70-million-tax-dollars/. Accessed December 10, 2015.
12.
Charuvastra  A, Friedmann  PD, Stein  MD.  Physician attitudes regarding the prescription of medical marijuana.  J Addict Dis. 2005;24(3):87-93.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
13.
Adler  JN, Colbert  JA.  Medicinal use of marijuana—polling results.  N Engl J Med. 2013;368(22):e30.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
14.
Hoffmann  DE, Weber  E.  Medical marijuana and the law.  N Engl J Med. 2010;362(16):1453-1457.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref---------

He who makes an attempt to enslave me, thereby puts himself into a state of war with me.

Offline txradioguy

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I'm in agreement with her on this. Psychedelics are good at forcing a person to see themselves objectively, without ego, which can help overcome a lot of hurtles in therapy. It's possible that with the help of psychedelics we can find remedies for mental health conditions previously believed to be incurable.

Exhibit A on why this is a bad idea.
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